grinding研磨

“Brilliant Grinding: Exploring Grinding Technology and Application” Introduction to 4 Grinding Aspects

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What is grinding doing?

Grinding is an important physical process widely used in modern industry. In this article, we will discuss the principles, methods, equipment and applications of grinding, and provide readers with comprehensive grinding knowledge and reference materials.

Fundamentals of Grinding

This is a process in which material processing and surface properties are altered through abrasion. The physical principle of grinding includes the influence of factors such as friction, wear, and heat on grinding, as well as the deformation of materials and changes in surface properties during the grinding process.

Physical effect:

When grinding, the grinding surface of the grinding tool is evenly coated with abrasive. If the hardness of the material of the grinding tool is lower than that of the workpiece, when the grinding tool and the workpiece move relative to each other under pressure, the abrasive has sharp edges and high hardness. Particles, some will be pressed into the surface of the lap to produce cutting action (plastic deformation), and some will roll or slide between the lap and workpiece surface to produce friction (elastic deformation). These particles are like countless cutting edges, which produce a small amount of cutting effect on the surface of the workpiece, and evenly cut off a very thin layer of metal from the surface of the workpiece. At the same time, under the action of grinding pressure, the passivated abrasive grains squeeze the peak points of the processed surface to produce micro-extrusion plastic deformation on the processed surface, so that the workpiece gradually obtains high dimensional accuracy and low surface roughness. .

Chemical effect:

However, when abrasives such as chromium oxide and stearic acid are used, a chemical reaction occurs between the abrasive and the processed surface of the workpiece during the grinding process to form an extremely thin oxide film, which is easily worn off. The grinding process is the process of continuous formation and erasure of the oxide film, so many cycles are repeated to reduce the roughness of the processed surface.

Characteristics of Grinding

  • Low surface roughness: Grinding belongs to micro-feed grinding, and the cutting depth is small, which is beneficial to reduce the surface roughness value of the workpiece. The roughness of the processed surface can reach Ra0.01μm.
  • High dimensional accuracy: Grinding uses extremely fine micropowder abrasives. The machine tool, grinding tool and workpiece are in an elastic floating state. Under the action of low speed and low pressure, the convex peaks of the processed surface are gradually ground away, and the processing accuracy can reach 0.1μm~0 .01 μm.
  • High shape accuracy: When grinding, the workpiece is basically in a free state, with uniform force, stable movement, and the movement accuracy does not affect the shape and position accuracy. The cylindricity of the processed cylinder can reach 0.1μm.
  • Improve the mechanical properties of the workpiece surface: the cutting heat of grinding is small, the deformation of the workpiece is small, the metamorphic layer is thin, and there will be no micro-cracks on the surface. At the same time, it can reduce the surface friction coefficient and improve wear resistance and corrosion resistance. There is residual compressive stress on the surface of the ground part, which is conducive to improving the fatigue strength of the workpiece surface.
  • The requirements for grinding tools are not high: the grinding tools and equipment used for grinding are generally relatively simple, and do not require extremely high precision; however, the material of the grinding tools is generally softer than the workpiece, and will be worn during grinding, so it should be repaired and replaced in time.

Grinding methods and techniques

There are many methods and techniques, including hand grinding, mechanical grinding, chemical mechanical grinding and ultra-precision grinding. Hand grinding usually uses abrasives such as grinding wheels and sandpaper. It requires high skill and time, but it is very effective for processing small batches. Mechanical grinding is an automated grinding method suitable for mass production, usually using abrasives such as grinding wheels and abrasive belts. Chemical mechanical grinding is a method that combines chemical reaction and mechanical grinding, which is suitable for processing fine and brittle materials. Ultra-precision grinding is a high-precision, high-surface-quality grinding method that can achieve submicron-level surface smoothness.

Equipment

Grinding requires the use of a variety of equipment, including hand grinders, flat grinders, center grinders, cylindrical grinders, and grinding machines. Manual grinders typically use manual controls and are suitable for small batches and smaller materials. Surface grinders and center grinders are suitable for batch processing and medium-sized materials, which can realize automatic control and improve processing efficiency and quality. Cylindrical grinding machines are mainly used for processing cylindrical and conical surfaces and other cylindrical materials, which can achieve high-precision processing. The grinding machine is a multi-functional processing equipment, which can realize the processing of different shapes such as plane, outer circle and inner hole, and is widely used in various industrial fields. In addition to the above traditional grinding equipment, many new grinding equipment have appeared in recent years, such as ultra-precision grinding machines, chemical mechanical grinding machines, etc. Ultra-precision grinding machine is a kind of equipment specially used to achieve high-precision grinding, which can achieve sub-micron or even nano-level processing accuracy. The chemical mechanical grinding machine is a new type of equipment that combines chemical reaction and mechanical grinding, which can achieve high-efficiency and high-precision processing.

Application

Grinding is widely used in modern industrial production, mainly involving mechanical processing, precision manufacturing, electronic components, medical equipment, aerospace and other fields. Several typical application cases are introduced below.

Machining

Machining is one of the most widely used fields of grinding, mainly including rough machining, semi-finishing and precision machining. Grinding can achieve high precision and high surface quality processing, especially for hard, brittle and difficult-to-machine materials, grinding is an indispensable processing method. For example, the components, bearings and gears of aero-engines all need to be ground to meet the precision requirements. In addition, grinding can also achieve ultra-precision processing, such as grinding mirrors, which are widely used in optical devices, precision instruments and other fields.

Precision manufacturing

Grinding is one of the important processes to achieve precision manufacturing, which can produce products with high precision and high surface quality. For example, grinding can be used to produce high-precision molds, molds, modules, etc. These products are widely used in the fields of automobiles, home appliances, and medical equipment. In addition, grinding can also be used to produce high-precision products such as precision instruments, optical components, and precision gyroscopes.

Electronic Component

Grinding is one of the indispensable processes in the manufacturing process of electronic components. For example, grinding can be used to produce microfabricated products such as integrated circuit wafers and MEMS sensors. In addition, grinding can also be used in semiconductor manufacturing, such as grinding wafers, flattening wafer surfaces, etc.

Future Trends in Grinding

Future grinding technology will be more adaptive, fully automated and intelligent. Adaptive grinding technology can independently adjust the processing parameters according to the different characteristics of the processing materials to achieve more efficient processing results. Fully automated grinding technology can realize the fully automated process from processing parameter setting, processing process monitoring to product inspection, and further improve production efficiency and processing quality. Intelligent grinding technology is to achieve more accurate and efficient processing control and quality monitoring through the application of artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies.

The future application prospects of these technologies are very broad. For example, in aerospace, automobile manufacturing, electronic components and other fields, grinding technology is a key processing method. The application of adaptive grinding, fully automatic grinding and intelligent grinding will further improve product quality and production efficiency. In addition, the application field of grinding technology in the future will also expand to a wider range of materials and product types, such as biomedical devices, new energy products, etc. In conclusion, the future of grinding technology will continue to develop, providing more efficient and precise processing solutions for manufacturing industries in various industries.

References

About Honxin Abrasive

Honxin has been deeply rooted in the field of abrasive materials for over 50 years, and our core value as a company is to consistently exceed customer expectations. As a market leader, Honxin has gained an excellent reputation by delivering exceptional products. Throughout our journey, we adhere to the international quality standard ISO 9001, ensuring stable and top-notch products for our customers.

We provide ODM/OEM product services to various industries, and maintaining excellent quality is our utmost principle. Our commitment is to offer a “comprehensive solution” that maximizes benefits for our customers.

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