waterjet cutting machine with abrasive

Waterjet Cutting Machine with Abrasive: Breaking Through the Limits of Cutting, 5 types of water jet cutting machines


Waterjet cutting machines are a type of tool that uses high-pressure water jets to cut various materials with high precision and speed. In this article, we will introduce the structure, principle, and applications of waterjet cutting machines.

Structure and principle of water jet cutting machine

It mainly includes a high-pressure pump, cutting head, cutting table, control system, and cooling system.

1.High-pressure pump

One of the important components in the entire system, the main function is to generate high-pressure water flow, so as to form a high-speed water flow in the cutting head and achieve cutting of materials. Generally, the high-pressure pump used in water jet cutting machines can generate high-pressure water flow of up to 50,000 psi. The working principle of the high-pressure pump is to generate high pressure by compressing air or liquid, and then push the water flow to form a high-speed water flow. Currently, common types of high-pressure pumps include plunger pumps, piston pumps, and diaphragm pumps. Plunger pumps and piston pumps are traditional types of high-pressure pumps, which work by generating high pressure through a piston or plunger in a compression chamber and then pushing the water flow to form a high-speed water flow. The diaphragm pump is a new type of high-pressure pump that generates high-pressure water flow by vibrating a rubber or plastic membrane.

2.Cutting Head

One of the core components of a waterjet cutting machine and a key component for achieving high-precision cutting. The cutting head usually consists of a high-pressure water hose, an abrasive wheel, a positioning system, an inlet pipe, and a nozzle.
(1) The high-pressure water hose is the main pipeline for transmitting high-pressure water flow to the cutting head. It is usually made of special materials that are resistant to high pressure and abrasion to ensure the safe transmission of high-pressure water flow.
(2) The abrasive wheel is one of the cutting tools of the cutting head. It is propelled by high-pressure water flow and rotates at high speed to produce a high-speed abrasive stream for material cutting. The cutting head is usually equipped with abrasive wheels of different shapes to achieve different cutting shapes.
(3) The positioning system usually consists of optical instruments and image processing systems, which can monitor the position and orientation of the material in real-time, thereby achieving high-precision cutting.
(4) The inlet pipe guides the high-pressure water flow to the vicinity of the abrasive wheel for pre-cutting preparation work.
(5) The nozzle is a key component for controlling the high-pressure water flow, which can convert the high-pressure water flow into a high-speed abrasive stream, thereby achieving material cutting.

3. Cutting table

The working platform used during the cutting process, typically made of high-strength materials such as steel plates or stone. The surface of the cutting table must be flat, highly durable, and resistant to deformation to ensure stable distances and cutting angles between the material and the cutting head. The cutting table also requires a drainage system and collection trough to promptly remove waste materials and residual water flow generated during the cutting process. Some advanced water jet cutting machines feature cutting tables with automatic adjustment functions that can adjust the height and angle of the table according to different cutting requirements, achieving more precise cutting results.

4. Control System

The intelligent control center of a waterjet cutting machine is mainly used to control the operation of components such as the high-pressure pump, cutting head, and cutting table, and to control and adjust the cutting process through computer software. The control system of a waterjet cutting machine mainly consists of two parts: software and hardware. The software part includes CAD and CAM, which are used to design and program cutting graphics, generate cutting paths, and control instructions. The hardware part includes a controller, PLC, servo driver, and motion control card, which are used to transmit and execute instructions, as well as control the movement of the cutting head and cutting table. During the waterjet cutting process, the control system can adjust and control multiple parameters, such as the pressure and flow rate of the high-pressure water, the speed and acceleration of the cutting head movement, and the cutting depth. The adjustment and control of these parameters can optimize the cutting efficiency, quality, and cost. In addition, the control system also has automatic detection and fault alarm functions. When the waterjet cutting machine encounters a fault, the control system can automatically detect and issue an alarm, so that maintenance can be performed in a timely manner, thereby ensuring the normal operation and service life of the waterjet cutting machine.

5. Cooling System

The cooling system of a waterjet cutting machine consists of a water cooler, water tank, water pipes, and water pump. The water cooler is the core component of the cooling system, which can cool down the high-temperature water flow passing through the water pipes quickly with the help of a fan. The water tank is used to store the cooling agent and can be recycled. The water pump is used to push the cooling agent to circulate and maintain a stable water temperature. The water pipes are connected to the above components to form a complete cooling system. The correct operation of the cooling system is an important guarantee for the long-term operation of the waterjet cutting machine. If the cooling system is not functioning properly, it may damage components such as the high-pressure pump and cutting head, or even cause the entire machine to fail. Therefore, when using a waterjet cutting machine, it is necessary to regularly check whether the cooling system is operating normally, replace the cooling agent in a timely manner, and keep the cooling system clean to ensure the stable operation of the waterjet cutting machine.

Types of Waterjet Cutting Machines

Waterjet cutting machines are designed based on different cutting principles and application requirements. Below are common types of waterjet cutting machines with their characteristics, application ranges, and pros and cons:

1.Traditional Waterjet Cutting Machine

The traditional waterjet cutting machine is the earliest type of waterjet cutting machine. Its basic principle is to cut the workpiece using high-pressure water. This type of cutting machine is suitable for cutting thinner materials such as rubber, paper, and plastics. The advantages are lower cost and easy maintenance, but the disadvantages are slower cutting speed and lower cutting precision.

2.Accelerated Waterjet Cutting Machine

The accelerated waterjet cutting machine is based on the traditional waterjet cutting machine but includes a special accelerator that increases water flow speed and cutting efficiency. This type of cutting machine is suitable for cutting thicker materials such as metal, glass, and stone. The advantages are faster cutting speed and higher cutting efficiency, but the disadvantages are higher cost and more complex maintenance.

3.High-Pressure Waterjet Laser Cutting Machine

The high-pressure waterjet laser cutting machine combines laser technology with waterjet cutting technology. Its basic principle is to use laser beams to pre-treat the material before cutting, creating a molten layer, and then cutting it using high-pressure water. This type of cutting machine is suitable for cutting more complex shapes and harder materials such as stainless steel, titanium alloy, and ceramics. The advantages are faster cutting speed and higher precision, but the disadvantages are higher cost and more complex maintenance.

4.CNC Waterjet Cutting Machine

The CNC waterjet cutting machine is an intelligent control waterjet cutting machine. Its basic principle is to control the cutting head, cutting speed, and cutting path through a computer control system. This type of cutting machine is suitable for cutting various materials with high precision and high automation, making it suitable for large-scale, high-precision production needs. The advantages are high automation, high cutting precision, and high production efficiency, but the disadvantages are higher cost and more complex maintenance.

5.Ultra-High Pressure Waterjet Cutting Machine

The ultra-high pressure waterjet cutting machine is a cutting machine that uses even higher water pressure to cut materials. Its basic principle is to use higher water pressure to cut thicker and harder materials, such as exterior building decorations and cutting on drilling platforms. The advantages are stronger cutting ability and higher cutting precision, but the disadvantages are higher cost and more complex maintenance.

Type of Waterjet Cutting MachineSuitable MaterialsAdvantagesDisadvantages
Traditional Waterjet Cutting MachineRubber, Paper, PlasticsLower cost, Easy maintenanceSlower cutting speed, Lower cutting precision
Accelerated Waterjet Cutting MachineMetal, Glass, StoneFaster cutting speed, Higher cutting efficiencyHigher cost, More complex maintenance
High-Pressure Waterjet Laser Cutting MachineStainless Steel, Titanium Alloy, CeramicsFaster cutting speed, Higher precisionHigher cost, More complex maintenance
CNC Waterjet Cutting MachineVarious materials with high precision and high automationHigh automation, High cutting precision, High production efficiencyHigher cost, More complex maintenance
Ultra-High Pressure Waterjet Cutting MachineThicker and harder materials, Exterior building decorations, Cutting on drilling platformsStronger cutting ability, Higher cutting precisionHigher cost, More complex maintenance

The application of waterjet cutting machine

Waterjet cutting machine is a machine that uses high-pressure water or abrasive water jet to cut materials. Due to its advantages of no heat-affected zone, high precision, non-toxicity, no harmful gas and noise, waterjet cutting technology has been widely used in various industries. Here are some major application areas:

1.Automotive Industry: Waterjet cutting machines are widely used in the automotive industry for cutting materials such as aluminum alloy, carbon fiber, plastics, etc., for car body, engine and interior parts.
2.Aerospace Industry: Waterjet cutting technology can cut various complex shapes of materials used in the aerospace industry, such as aluminum alloy, titanium alloy and composite materials.
3.Building Materials: Waterjet cutting machines can be used to cut building materials such as marble, granite, and stone to meet design requirements.
4.Textile Industry: Waterjet cutting technology can be used for cutting textiles, such as clothes, cushions, and fabrics.
5.Electronics Industry: Waterjet cutting machines can be used to cut printed circuit boards (PCBs) and electronic components such as chips and conductive materials.
6.Food Processing: Waterjet cutting technology can be used in food processing, such as cutting meat, dairy products, and vegetables.


Waterjet cutting technology has many advantages and characteristics, such as high precision, high efficiency, no heat-affected zone, and applicability to various materials. Therefore, it has been widely used in various industries. In the past few decades, waterjet cutting technology has continuously developed and improved, from simple waterjet cutting to the addition of abrasives, the use of automation technology and software control, making waterjet cutting machines more mature and applicable to a wider range of materials.

With the continuous progress of technology and the development of industries, waterjet cutting technology will also face new challenges and opportunities. In the future, the intelligence, automation, and digitization of waterjet cutting machines will be the main development direction. By integrating new technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine vision, big data, and cloud computing, waterjet cutting machines can achieve higher efficiency, more precise operations, and more flexible applications. In addition, waterjet cutting technology also has great application prospects in the fields of new energy, environmental protection, and biomedical engineering. Therefore, we can foresee that waterjet cutting technology will play an increasingly important role in the future development, bringing more value and contributions to various industries.

About Honxin Abrasive

Honxin has been deeply rooted in the field of abrasive materials for over 50 years, and our core value as a company is to consistently exceed customer expectations. As a market leader, Honxin has gained an excellent reputation by delivering exceptional products. Throughout our journey, we adhere to the international quality standard ISO 9001, ensuring stable and top-notch products for our customers.

We provide ODM/OEM product services to various industries, and maintaining excellent quality is our utmost principle. Our commitment is to offer a “comprehensive solution” that maximizes benefits for our customers.

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