Abrasive Belt環帶

Abrasive Belt: A Useful Tool for Grinding


The abrasive belt, also known as a sanding belt, is a type of grinding tool used in machine grinding processes. Its structure resembles a long and narrow cylindrical belt. The central part of the abrasive belt is made of a thicker substrate material, such as cloth, plywood, paperboard, or similar materials, coated with abrasive material such as sand, diamond, or other abrasives, which belong to the “coated abrasive” series of abrasive products. The abrasive belt is installed on a rotating wheel or pulley and is used for surface finishing, polishing, and grinding applications. In this article, we will explore the types, structures, shapes, sizes, applications, and storage of abrasive belts.

Types and Characteristics of Abrasive Belts

Based on the different materials used, abrasive belts can be mainly divided into:

Common TypesFeatures
Sandcloth Ring BeltMade primarily of sandcloth, suitable for grinding and polishing metal, wood, plastic, ceramics, and other materials.
Sandpaper Ring BeltMade primarily of sandpaper, suitable for grinding and polishing wood, paint, and other materials.
Wool Felt Sandcloth Ring BeltOne of the characteristics of a wool felt sandcloth ring belt is that it combines wool felt and sandcloth together. Wool felt is a material with dense fiber structure, elasticity, and softness, which can effectively reduce the hardness of the sandcloth ring belt and improve the surface quality of grinding and polishing. It is suitable for high-precision grinding and polishing of metal, glass, ceramics, plastic, and other materials.
Non-woven Sandcloth Ring BeltMade of high-quality sandcloth and polyester fiber material, it has good grinding effect and can quickly polish and grind the surface of the workpiece. It is widely used in metal, wood, ceramics, and other fields.
Synthetic Ring BeltA grinding tool made primarily of synthetic resin, characterized by high hardness and strong wear resistance, usually used for grinding and polishing hard materials such as metal and ceramics.
Adhesive Sandcloth Ring BeltCoated with glue on the surface of the sandcloth, it has good wear resistance and water resistance, suitable for grinding and polishing high hardness metal materials such as steel and stainless steel.

Structure of sanding belt: backing material + abrasive + bonding agent

Ring belt is a type of sanding tool, usually composed of a belt-shaped substrate and a layer of abrasive material covering it. The grinding process mainly relies on the friction between the abrasive on the surface of the ring belt and the workpiece surface to generate heat, thereby removing the unevenness and roughness on the surface of the workpiece. In the following, the structure of the ring belt will be introduced in detail.

Types and Characteristics of Substrates

The common base materials for sanding belts are divided into two categories: cloth-based and paper-based.

Cloth-backed abrasive belt

Cotton backing is the most durable and widely used backing material for sanding belts. The weight of the fabric is indicated by a letter. The deeper you go into the alphabet, the heavier the backing material.

J-WeightJ-Weight is a lightweight and flexible cloth backing, suitable for contour sanding applications.
X-WeightX-Weight is a medium-weight backing, suitable for general-purpose use.
Y-WeightY-Weight is a heavy-duty backing, with the highest strength and capable of withstanding heavy sanding and product removal pressure.

Paper-backed abrasive belts

Paper-backed abrasive belts are typically about 20-30% cheaper than cloth-backed belts and are suitable for applications where you work on flat surfaces. The most popular uses are in woodworking stroke sanders and wide belt sanders. The belts are also designated by letters, typically “E-Weight” or “F-Weight”.

Abrasive – Common Types and Characteristics

CeramicMade from a material called ceramic abrasive grains, these are known for their high cutting speed and long life, making them the primary choice for heavy steel grinding. They are more heat-resistant than other types of belts, making them suitable for materials that generate a lot of heat during the grinding process, such as stainless steel and titanium.These belts are best suited for high-speed use.
Aluminum OxideMade from aluminum oxide grains, these are a popular choice for general grinding and polishing applications, and are known for their durability and versatility. They can be used on a variety of materials, including soft metals, wood, and plastics, and come in a range of grits to suit different applications.These belts are best suited for medium to high-speed use.
Silicon CarbideThis abrasive grain is similar to “slate” or “shale” rock and is very sharp and brittle. Most commonly used for wet and dry grinding, silicon carbide is the preferred abrasive for sanding glass, plastics, rubber, ceramics, or other brick or stone materials. It is also popular at very high grits for precision finishing of metals and wood.These belts are best suited for wet and dry grinding.
ZirconiaZirconia can be thought of as the industrial equivalent of cubic zirconia in the jewelry industry. This synthetic material is very hard and is suitable for grinding applications that generate high heat on hard materials, particularly for heavy removal applications. Zirconia is the preferred choice for rough grinding or shaping on extremely hard woods, steels, and stainless steels.These belts are best suited for rough grinding.

Binder – Common Types and Characteristics

The hardness of a binder refers to its ability to resist compression and wear. Harder binders can better maintain the stability of the abrasive grains under high loads and temperatures, which improves the lifespan of the belt. However, overly hard binders can also make the belt too rigid, affecting its elasticity and ability to conform to the curvature of the workpiece surface, thus affecting the grinding efficiency.

Grinding wheel bindersCharacteristics
ResinHigh processing efficiency, low surface roughness, suitable for soft materials.
MetalGood heat resistance and wear resistance, high processing efficiency, suitable for metal processing.
CeramicGood heat resistance, high hardness, good wear resistance, and high processing efficiency.

The following are just a few common substrate materials, abrasives, and bonding agents found in grinding wheels, along with their characteristics. When using grinding wheels, the appropriate abrasive should be selected based on the material being worked on and the desired grinding effect.

Shape and Size of Abrasive Belt

Abrasive belt are a commonly used tool for grinding, polishing, and buffing surfaces of work pieces. The shape and size of abrasive belt are critical factors that affect their performance. This article will introduce the shapes and sizes of abrasive belt and their applications.

Abrasive Belt Shapes

Abrasive Belt ShapesCharacteristicsApplications

Narrow Belt
Narrow belts are long and narrow abrasive belts.
Width is usually less than 10mm.
Used for local surface grinding, polishing, and finishing.

Wide Belt
Wide belts are short and wide abrasive belts.
Width is usually more than 25mm.
Used for overall surface grinding, polishing, and finishing of large area workpieces.

Round Belt
Round belts are circular abrasive belts.Used for internal grinding, polishing, and finishing of tubular workpieces.

The size of the grinding wheel

The size of the grinding wheel is also an important factor affecting its performance. The size of the grinding wheel is usually determined by its length, width, and thickness.

LengthThe length of the ring belt is usually between 500mm and 2000mm, and different grinding equipment will have different length requirements.
WidthThe width of the ring belt is usually between 10mm and 150mm. The wider the width, the greater the grinding effect on the workpiece surface.
CoarsenessThe coarseness of the ring belt is usually determined by the size of the abrasive particles, and commonly used coarseness levels include 40, 60, 80, 120, etc.

Application of Abrasive Belts

The following table lists common applications of abrasive belts and corresponding materials for processing. When using abrasive belts, appropriate belts and processing parameters should be selected based on the specific situation.

Various FieldsApplications
MetalworkingRemoving burrs, mirror polishing, flat grinding, cutting edge trimming, correcting saw marks, etc.
WoodworkingRough surface grinding, smooth surface grinding, edge trimming, etc.
Plastic processingRough processing, fine processing, deburring, etc.
Ceramic processingSurface polishing, cutting, flattening, etc.
Glass processingRough processing, fine processing, cutting, polishing, etc.
Electronics manufacturingRemoving welding residue, welding point trimming, polishing, etc.
Automobile maintenanceGrinding and milling surfaces, cutting edge trimming, repairing scratches, removing rust, etc.

How to store sanding belts

Sanding belts are commonly used tools in various industries, with their backing material typically being paper made from multiple layers of compressed cellulose. However, due to the strong moisture absorption properties of paper, sanding belts are highly sensitive to atmospheric changes, and daily fluctuations in humidity directly impact the stability of the abrasive. High humidity can cause the edges of the sanding belts to warp, leading to unexpected stops when they come out and activate the emergency brake on contact sanders. To optimize the storage conditions of sanding belts, the following guidelines should be followed:

  1. Before use, keep the abrasive belt in its original packaging. 
  2. Only open the box or packaging when needed.
  3. The temperature for storing abrasive belts should be between 18°C to 22°C.
  4. The recommended relative humidity should be between 45% to 65%.
  5. Avoid storing the box near heat sources or windows to prevent the abrasive belt from being exposed to sunlight. This applies to any storage area, including those on the roof or at high locations near buildings.
  6. Do not place the abrasive belt box directly on moist surfaces such as soil, cement, or concrete, and avoid placing it near vents, walls, wells, pits, or water pipes.
  7. Avoid horizontally stacking open boxes to prevent damage to the internal belts and deformation.


The applications of abrasive belts are extensive and can be used for surface treatment and processing of various materials such as metal, wood, glass, plastic, etc. They can be used in different grinding stages, including rough grinding, intermediate grinding, and precision grinding. Abrasive belts can be used in both manual grinding and machine grinding. They are known for their efficiency, precision, and ease of operation, making them widely used in industrial production.

In conclusion, abrasive belts are important grinding tools with a wide range of types and applications. With advancements in technology and industrial development, the application of abrasive belts will continue to expand. The development of more efficient and precise abrasive belts is an essential trend in the industry.


  • https://rapidabrasives.ca/how-to-measure-sanding-belts/
  • https://www.shinhoda.com.tw/product-detail-2951933.html
About Honxin Abrasive

Honxin has been deeply rooted in the field of abrasive materials for over 50 years, and our core value as a company is to consistently exceed customer expectations. As a market leader, Honxin has gained an excellent reputation by delivering exceptional products. Throughout our journey, we adhere to the international quality standard ISO 9001, ensuring stable and top-notch products for our customers.

We provide ODM/OEM product services to various industries, and maintaining excellent quality is our utmost principle. Our commitment is to offer a “comprehensive solution” that maximizes benefits for our customers.

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